Polo 101

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POLO 101

Known as the “Game of Kings,” polo is one of the oldest team sports in history. Its origin is unknown, but it is said that Persia or Central Asia had a hand in placing the sport on the books about 2000 years ago, using polo as a way to prepare warriors for battle.

One of the first recorded polo tournaments took place around 600 B.C., and the sport spread around the world from there. In 1869, England held its first game, followed by the first tournament in 1876.

Polo came to America that same year thanks to James Gordon Bennett. The United States Polo Association (USPA) was created by H.L. Herbert, John Cowdin and Thomas Hitchcock in March of 1890. The USPA coordinated games, standardized the rules and determined the handicaps of players across the country. Today, over 250 active clubs are part of the USPA and host some of the best polo in the world.

“Angling teaches a man patience and self control; (fox) hunting improves not only good horsemanship, but pluck and observation; whilst shooting inculcates quickness of hand and eye coupled with endurance and the power of bearing fatigue; football, cricket, rowing, rackets, tennis all bring to the front and encourage qualities that are essentially manly; and perhaps no sport tends to combine all these lessons so much as polo, none makes a man more a man than this entrancing game, none fits him more for the sterner joys of war or enables him better to bear his part in the battle of life.”
- J. Moray Brown, Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes, 1891


A match consists of 4 to 8 chukkas or chukkers (periods) that last 7 minutes and 30 seconds each. A horn is blown at the end of 7 minutes to signal to the players that 30 seconds remain in the chukker. During the 30 seconds, play continues until a team scores or the ball hits the sideboards. If neither occurs, at the end of 30 seconds the horn blows twice to signal the end of the chukker.

There are 4 minutes between each chukker and 10 minutes at halftime. Each time the whistle is blown the clock stops, signaling that a foul has been committed or that it’s the end of the chukker. During the breaks players are able to switch ponies.

After each goal the teams change direction. This allows both teams equal opportunities to score in case the field or weather is working to one direction’s advantage. The game is continuous and can only be stopped if a foul is called, an injury occurs to either a polo pony or rider, or if a player’s tack is broken.

The goal is to hit the ball between the two goal posts. If the offensive team misses, the defensive team is allowed a “knock-in” from the spot where the ball crossed the end line, continuing play. The team that scores the most goals wins.

“For Daring turn and skillful stroke
The ever quickening stride,
The ring of the stirrup, the clash of the stick,
And the rush of the furious ride;
The cheer when the ball through the goal is driven
By steady hand and eye,
Have a wild delight in themselves alone
That can never grow old or die.”
- H. C. Bently 1880


There are 4 players on each team, assigned positions on offense and defense. The number 1 player is the offensive forward, and the number 4 player is the defensive back. Numbers 2 and 3 are considered to be the strongest, most experienced players, number 3 often being the quarterback or field captain, and number 2 being responsible for pushing the play both on offense and defense. Player number 1 covers number 4, and player 2 covers player 3.

“For, our number one’s a dandy,
Number two is fast and handy,
Number three is the hardest hitter of them all;
But nothing can be grander
Than that solid old back-hander
When our back is being hustled, on the ball.”
- H. L. Herbert, First Chairman, The Polo Association (USPA), The Book of Sport (1901)


A regulation polo field is 300 yards long by 160 yards wide (the area of about 9 American football fields). The field is usually lined with boards on the long sides to prevent the ball from rolling out of play. It’s still possible, however, for the ball to bounce out over the sideboards.

Goal posts are placed 8 yards apart at each end of the field. The posts are usually easy to remove and covered in a foam layer to protect the polo ponies and riders in case of contact. Most polo fields are carefully maintained to keep them safe for the ponies.


Webster’s dictionary defines a polo pony as “a horse trained for use as a mount in playing polo and characterized primarily by endurance, speed, courage, and docility.”

Without the polo pony there would be no polo. The ponies must be able to release bursts of speed, come to a stop from high speeds, turn quickly and accurately, and have the confidence to push another pony to the side. Many polo players describe their best mounts as having big hearts and a feel for the game.

“A polo pony has got to have the speed of a race horse, the tough, quick response of a cow pony and the agility of a show jumper. Then he’s got to have more stamina than any of them.”
- Cecil Smith (10h. USA) (1904-2000)


Behind the scenes of polo, a great deal of work needs to be done, and that’s where the grooms come in. Grooms take care of day-to-day responsibilities, such as feeding, cleaning, tacking, prepping, doctoring, transporting, and simply caring for the polo ponies.

During the games, you may find up to five grooms at one trailer. Each groom must be familiar with the horses, have a quiet demeanor, and possess an understanding of tack and the polo players’ preferences. With these skills, polo players are able to focus their energy on the game and know that the next horse will be ready to go out onto the field.

“Grooms are the unsung heroes of polo. By virtue of the fact that they spend more time with the horses than anyone else, they can make or break a polo player.” – R. D. Lubash, “Polo Wisdom” 2003


A handicap in polo is similar to a rating. The higher a person is rated, the better the player is. Handicaps range from minus 2 to 10, with 10 goals being the best.

Teams are composed of players with certain handicaps to equal the level of the tournament they’re playing in. For example, a -1, a 3, a 5, and a 1 can play in an 8-goal tournament. In a handicap tournament, if a team’s handicaps are lower than the tournament handicap level, that team is awarded a point on the scoreboard at the beginning of the match.

“A polo handicap is a passport to the world.”
- Winston Churchill


Safety on the field can easily be forgotten when your adrenaline is rushing and you’re in the heat of the play. It takes umpires with full knowledge of the game to keep the horses and riders safe.

Dangerous plays are the foundation for most fouls, such as crossing in front of the player with the ball or committing an illegal ride-off. Each time the ball is hit, it creates an invisible line, known as “the line of the ball.” The line changes each time the ball is hit, and the players must pay attention and follow that line to avoid fouls.

If a foul occurs, penalty shots are awarded depending on the location where the foul was committed or the severity of the foul. There are usually lines painted on the field to indicate where penalty shots may be taken: midfield, the sixty-yard line, forty-yard line, and thirty-yard line.


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